Introduction
9
2.4
Import from Excel
CAP 3.0 offers the ability to import data directly from a Microsoft Excel
spreadsheet.
It is important, however, that a number of points are observed:
1. If you are using a multiple worksheet version of Excel, the data will be
imported from the worksheet that was opened when the workbook was last
saved.
2. The data should be present as a contiguous rectangular block, starting at Cell
A1.
3. Cell A1 itself should be empty, with sample names present in Row 1 and
variable (species) names present in Column 1.
4. The import procedure ignores formulae in cells and imports the visible values.
5. Ensure that all cells leftwards and downwards from cell B2 contain numerical
data.
6. CAP can import directly from Excel whether Excel is open or not, provided the
worksheet has been saved.
2.5
Large data files
If you are planning to use large datasets with CAP then you may find the PISCES
LIST COMBINER very useful indeed. Excel has a limit of 255 columns per
worksheet. LIST COMBINER will take all your worksheets and combine them all
into one large csv file (summing and sorting the values for each variable along the
way) ready to load directly into CAP. See 
www.pisces 
conservation.com/softutils.html
 for more details.
2.6
General instructions
Start CAP in the normal Windows fashion either by clicking on the program icon
or from the start button.
Along the top bar are a number of pull down menus. These work in the same way
as other standard Windows programs.
File:
 To open and save data sets.
Edit:
 To cut copy and paste to and from the active window.
Groups:
 For setting and analysing grouped data
Ordination:
 To select an ordination method to apply to the data.
Twinspan:
 To initiate a Twinspan analysis.
Clustering:
 To select a cluster analysis.
Similarity:
 To display similarity measures between samples.
Association:
 To perform a Chi squared association test
Experimental:
 To use the experimental 
Species Filtering
98
 method
Help:
 to enter the Help system.
When the program is started, you will be presented with a blank working area;
open your data files. The raw data will be displayed on the  Sample/Species data 
page; this has a corresponding  Working data  page where you can manipulate
and transform the data. Initially, the Raw Data and Working Data will display the
same values 
 except that CAP will remove any zero sum rows or columns from
the Working Data array. Once a transformation or some other adjustment has
been applied to the data (for details see below) the Working Data form will display
Copyright 2004, PISCES CONSERVATION LTD





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