34
Community Analysis Package
Brohor
0
4
0
3
2
0
2
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Chealb
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Cirarv
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Elepal
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
4
5
8
0
0
0
4
Elyrep
4
4
4
4
4
0
0
0
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Empnig
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
Hyprad
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
5
0
Junart
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
4
Junbuf
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
4
0
0
4
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Leoaut
0
5
2
2
3
3
3
3
2
3
5
2
2
2
2
0
2
5
6
2
Lolper
7
5
6
5
2
6
6
4
2
6
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
Plalan
0
0
0
0
5
5
5
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
2
3
0
0
Poapra
4
4
5
4
2
3
4
4
4
4
4
0
2
0
0
0
1
3
0
0
Poatri
2
7
6
5
6
4
5
4
5
4
0
4
9
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
Potpal
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
Ranfla
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
2
2
2
2
0
0
0
4
Rumace
0
0
0
0
5
6
3
0
2
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Sagpro
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
2
2
0
2
4
2
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
Salrep
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
5
Tripra
0
0
0
0
2
5
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Trirep
0
5
2
1
2
5
2
2
3
6
3
3
2
6
1
0
0
2
2
0
Viclat
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
Brarut
0
0
2
2
2
6
2
2
2
2
4
4
0
0
4
4
0
6
3
4
Calcus
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
0
3
0
0
0
3
Table 1 An example of biological data: This is the dune meadow data used by Jongman et
al. (1995). The scientific names of the species have been abbreviated.
7.2
Searching for similarity
When we compare the flora or fauna sampled at different localities we often wish
to know how similar are their species assemblages. Numerous methods have
been devised for the measurement of similarity, the most successful of which are
described below. Legendre & Legendre (1998) give a more complete account of
similarity and distance measures.
Similarity indices
82
 are simple measures of either the extent to which two
habitats have species in common (Q analysis) or species have habitats in
common (R analysis). Binary similarity coefficients use presence absence data
and more complex quantitative coefficients can be used if you have data on
species abundance. When comparing the species at two localities indices can be
divided into those that take account of the absence of a species from both
communities (double zero methods) and those that do not. In most ecological
applications it is unwise to use double zero methods as they assign a high level
of similarity to localities which 
both
 lack many species. We would not normally
consider two sites highly similar because their only common feature was the joint
lack of a group of species, which could occur because of sampling errors or
Copyright 2004, PISCES CONSERVATION LTD





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