**Data transformations**

**39**

**8**

**Data transformations**

The values in the Working Data grid can be transformed using a variety of

functions. From the working data window select

*Transform*

in the

*Type of*

*Adjustment*

panel.

The possible relative measures available within

*CAP *

are given below. Select the

transformation to be made and click on

*Submit*

to make the change. The

transformation options within

*CAP*

are itemised below.

**Reload raw data**

This will cause the working data to revert to the raw data.

**Log(10)**

Each value is transformed to the log to base 10. This cannot be done

for numbers <= 0.

**Log10(x+1)**

Each value is transformed by adding 1 and then calculating the log

to base 10. This is used when the data contains zero values.

**Log e **

Each value is transformed to the log to base e (natural logs). This cannot

be done for numbers <= 0.

**Log e (x+1)**

Each value is transformed by adding 1 and then calculating the log

to base e. This is used when the data contains zero values.

**Square root**

the square root of each number is calculated. This cannot be done

for negative numbers.

**Arcsin**

The Arcsin of each value is calculated. A transformation often used for

percentage data.

**Arcsin root**

The Arcsin of the square root of each number is calculated.

**Power**

Each value, x, is transformed to xa, where a is chosen by the user.

**Add constant**

A constant value, chosen by the user, is added to each value.

**Subtract constant**

A constant value, chosen by the user is subtracted from

each value.

**Multiply by constant**

Each value is multiplied by a constant value chosen by

the user.

**Divide by constant **

Each value is divided by a constant value chosen by the

user.

**8.1**

**Dealing with zeros**

Rows or columns in the working data holding zero values can be removed. On

the Working Data page select

*Handling zeros*

in the

*Type of Adjustment*

panel.

*Copyright 2004, PISCES CONSERVATION LTD*

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