Similarity measures
83
Q1
89
Q2
90
Steinhaus
91
Kulczynski Quantitative
91
Distance measures
Euclidean
91
Average
92
Chord
92
Geodesic
92
Manhattan
92
Mean character difference
93
Whittaker
93
Canberra
93
Bray Curtis
94
17.1
Simple matching
For measures of similarity between samples based on species presence absence
the observations can be summarised in a simple frequency table:
Sam
Species Present
Sample 2
Species Present
a
Species  Absent
c
where the number of species present in both samples is a, the number of species
present in sample 1 but missing from sample 2 is b, the number of species
missing in sample 1 but present in sample 2 is c and the number of species
missing from both samples is d. The total number of species, N, is therefore
a+b+c+d.
Simple matching is 
(a+d) / N.
Note that this measure gives equal weighting to double zeros and species which
are present in both samples. This is rarely useful in ecological studies.
17.2
Rogers_Tanimoto
For measures of similarity between samples based on species presence absence
the observations can be summarised in a simple frequency table:
Sam
Species Present
Sample 2
Species Present
a
Species  Absent
c
Copyright 2004, PISCES CONSERVATION LTD





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