Other Programs by PISCES Conservation Ltd
105
Axis has extremely versatile graphing capabilities, and can export images in .emf,
.jpg, .png or .bmp formats. Tabulated data can be exported as plain text, .csv, or
.xls files which will load into Excel or other spreadsheets   or even in HTML
format.
Data sets can be imported from standard spreadsheets such as Excel, or created
within the program.
20.4
Fuzzy Grouping
Fuzzy Grouping
 is a Windows  program that offers fuzzy clustering methods that
are now becoming used by community ecologists. Researchers in other fields
such as palaeontology, archaeology and the social sciences may also use these
methods. Easy to use programs for the PC to carry out these techniques and
aimed to meet the needs of ecologists are not presently available, and this has
undoubtedly slowed the introduction of these techniques into ecological analysis.
Lotfi Zadeh introduced the notion of a fuzzy set in 1965 as an approach for the
handling of uncertain knowledge. Today these techniques are widely used over a
wide range of scientifically disciplines and seem to be particularly appropriate to
ecological analysis where the boundaries between groups such as communities
or taxonomic units may be far from sharp.
In ordinary cluster analysis a sample or site either belongs or does not belong to
a particular group or set. We can score membership as a value of 1 and non 
membership as 0. In fuzzy clustering a degree of membership can be assigned
as a value between 0 and 1 so that a value of say 0.8 would indicate a high
probability that the sample belonged to the particular group in question. Thus, for
a data set comprising many samples that can be hypothesized as being divisible
into c groups, each sample has a degree of membership of belonging to each of
the c groups.
Fuzzy Grouping 
offers two main methods of data analysis, first fuzzy c means
and second fuzzy ordination. The first technique is appropriate for data that you
suspect can be divided into c groups but for which you may have no 
a priori
information on group membership. The second, fuzzy ordination is appropriate
when you have information on possible group membership. For example, the
samples might be taken along a transect up a mountain slope and the altitude
can be used as a measure of likely membership of a sample to the high altitude
community group. The program also undertakes Non Metric Multidimensional
Scaling primarily as a means of allowing the fuzzy clusters to be visualised in a 2 
dimensional space. However, the program can also be used to produce a
standard ordination using this powerful method. A final feature that can be useful
is the production of summary statistics on each row (species) and column
(sample).
20.5
Simply Tagging
Simply Tagging
 is a Windows program to estimate population size for both
closed and open populations using mark recapture methods, designed to be used
by undergraduates and allows them to simulate data and explore the accuracy
and reliability of mark recapture methods. Features include data simulation
options to model mark recapture experiments for open and closed populations.
The user can vary sampling intensity, population size, animal behaviour and
birth/death rates.
Copyright 2004, PISCES CONSERVATION LTD





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