DISTRIBUTION BY ENVIRONMENTS
examples of species which cannot be associated in our minds with any
particular plants, so many do they favour.
Others appear to have marked preferences and to flourish on
relatively few. Though found, perhaps, on a number of plants these
spiders may be regarded as having their headquarters on one or two.
Just a few examples include
Fab. (Yew, Box, Oak),
Latr. (Heather, Gorse),
Walck. (Cotton Grass),
Linn. (Holly, Gorse),
Sund. (Beech, Pine), and
Competition between spiders is lessened by the selection of
different parts of the plant on which to live and catch their prey.
Different species are more or less restricted to the bole of trees, the
roots of herbage, the trunks of trees, crevices in the bark, the stems of
herbs, the branches or twigs, the leaves or flowers.
Walck., for instance, specializes on the heads of
Walck. on the fluffy heads of Cotton Grass.
Linn. spends its days beneath the loose bark of trees, for
which its flattened body suits it. The elongated bodies, colour, and
suit them for life on the stems of
herbs. The colour of
for life in flowers. The
colour and somewhat flat bodies of
Linn. for life on tree trunks (and lichen on tree
trunks in the case of the latter). Examples could be multiplied, but we
should be trespassing on the subject of protective resemblance, with
which we shall be dealing in our second volume.
Specialization for life on a limited number of plants is indicated in
some of these examples, but this is carried to its extreme in the case of
a Malaysian spider,
Poc., which restricts
itself to, and is adapted for, life within the pitchers of